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The Twenty Steps To Koi Health

By Dr. Erik L. Johnson, Veterinarian

Assess <> Assure <> Attack

Assess, Assure, and then Attack.  All fish sickness is a complex relationship of Pond Conditions, Fish Condition, and the “Bug” (Pathogen).  “AAA” stands for the simple steps of “Assess, Assure, and Attack.”  That is, “Assess” the fish and pond, then “Assure” a healthy pond for the sick fish, then “Attack” the Bug.

If you skimmed the above, you should re-read it, and understand that a failure to understand and deploy all three components of disease control will inevitably lead to failure.  All the medicine in the land will NOT heal a fish that continues to live in an unclean pond.  Conversely, a perfectly managed pond will not prevent a fish from being vulnerable to a serious But, and so on.

“AAA” can be digested into Twenty “Action” Items, executed or considered in this EXACT order EVERY single time.

Summary Of Steps
Step 1: Assess Recent Handling
Step 2: Assess 'Winterstress'
Step 3: Assess Over (Or) Underfeeding
Step 4: Assess Ammonia
Step 5: Assess Nitrite
Step 6: Assess Nitrate
Step 7: Assess pH
Step 8: Assess Oxygen
Step 9: Assess Pond Space
Step 10: Assess Water Flows
Step 11: Assess Water Temperature
Step 12: Assess Pond Obstacles
Step 13: Assess Pond Cleanliness
Step 14: Attack Bacterial Pathogens
Step 15: Attack Fungal Co-Invaders
Step 16: Attack Parasitic Pathogens
Step 17: Assess Viaral Pathogens
Step 18: Assess Broad Spectrum or Shotgun Concepts and Remedies
Step 19: Assure "Quarantine" Capability
Step 20: Assure Oneself of Advanced Help

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Step ONE

Assess Recent Handling 

Assess whether the fish have experienced recent handling or transport, and SUBTRACT 20% from your “chances of success” score with this group of fish if they were recently handled.  If the fish have NOT been recently handled or transported, ADD 20% back to your “chances of success” score in any disease outbreak.  Why?  Well, because handling increases or worsens fish stress, which depresses their immune system.  Without the fish immune system backing you up against disease, then for any remedy to succeed, “It’s All You.”

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Step TWO

Assess ‘Winterstress’ 

Assess whether the fish have been undergoing winterstress, and then SUBTRACT 30% from your “chances of success” score with this group of fish if they are winterstressed.  If the fish are not winterstressed, ADD 30% to your “chances of success” score in any disease outbreak.  From this, you can safely interpret that if the fish are just coming out of winter, and they’re also freshly transported from the store, you would have “fifty-fifty” odds of saving any of the fish that get sick.

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Assess Over (or) Underfeeding 

Overfeeding is the most common hobbyist mistake.  I want you to know that there are actually people who feed their fish SEVERAL times per day, if you can believe it!  I recommend feeding once, or at most, twice per day.  Now, in fairness, it should be noted that you can feed up to twenty times per day if your pond can handle the waste load that comes from that.  So, if you’re going to feed copiously, you will have to amend your filtration in the “expensive” direction.  Overfeeding manifests itself as cloudy water and the overgrowth of green algae in the system.  It’s simple to assess, really.  Feed all that the fish will consume in five minutes.  I usually just toss in a few pellets continually as long as fish are up eating them for five minutes.  I never try to guess how much they will eat in a five minute period but prefer to give the food as the fish surface to get it.

Underfeeding manifests as fish which appear with pinched-looking heads and drawn up bellies.  A fish with a large head and a thin body is usually underfed.  A Koi that grows less than an inch per month is underfed, overcrowded or is not benefiting from regular water changes.  In the assessment of your feeding rates, SUBTRACT 15% from your COSS (“Chances Of Success”) Score if the fish are fed three or more times per day.  Conversely, ADD 15% to your COSS if the fish are only fed once or twice a day for a period of five minutes.  In that case you are not an overfeeder, and this defect will not require compensation.

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Assess Ammonia 

Ammonia is the primary chemical waste product of the fish.  It’s basically fish urine.  It can accumulate in ponds and cause health problems for the fish.  Step Four is to assess the Ammonia level with a test kit, or have someone do it for you.  If the Ammonia levels in the pond are high, assure a healthy pond by doing water changes to remove the offending Ammonia, and reduce feedings in order to reduce Ammonia production by the fish.  In some cases a dead fish (or other animal) may be decaying in the pond and cause high Ammonia levels.  Some people use chemicals to bind the Ammonia.  The application of certain chemicals may deceive your Ammonia test kit to show a negative, but the application of chemicals for Ammonia seldom results in healthier fish.

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Assess Nitrite 

In ponds with health colonies of beneficial bacteria living in the biofilter and on the pond’s aggregates, we see Ammonia naturally reduced to Nitrite.  In some cases, the Nitrite can build up in the pond and cause harm to the fish.  Nitrite levels should be assessed with a common test kit for Nitrite, or you should have someone do it for you.  If the Nitrite levels are measurable, they are too high.  Low levels of salt can block the harmful effects of Nitrite, or you can remove the harmful substance with water changes along with reduced feeding (a chronic high Nitrite level is a common symptom of overfeeding).  In other instances, a lack of calcium in the water can cause Nitrites to accumulate.  Adding beneficial bacteria to get the biofilter operating efficiently will remove the Nitrite, but you should be aware that those bacteria require calcium to forge their own bodies.

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Step SIX

Assess Nitrate 

All research done on Nitrate in ponds has shown that it’s not toxic to the fish in the short term.  In the long term, high Nitrate levels (> 80 ppm) will cause a depressed immune system, zero reproductive capacity, red veins in the fins, and slowed growth.  Nitrate is made from Nitrite by the beneficial nitrogen-reducing bacterial that needs to be seeded into the biofilter.  Plants and algae use Nitrate as food, so ponds with a lot of plant and/or algae growth typically will have Nitrates under natural control.  When levels of Nitrates are high, they can be reduced with water changes, reduced feeding, and adding plants to the pond.  It is NOT advisable to clean the bottom of your pond spotlessly clean of algae.  The algae, in proper amounts, are an effective nitrate reducer.

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  Step SEVEN

Assess pH 

Testing the pH is simple.  Examples of “pH” include 6.0, 7.0 or 8.0.  A pH of 6.0 is acidic, a pH of 7.0 is neutral and a pH of 8.0 is alkaline.  Fish require a pH that’s at or above seven.  For Koi and Goldfish, a pH HIGHER than 7.0 is fine.  Ammonia becomes more toxic at higher pH, so this should be kept in mind.  The pond’s pH should be assessed with a common test kit for pH, or you can have the testing done for you.  If the pH is low, you can add a variety of “buffers” to bring it up.  Retest the water in one hour to make sure the effect of a higher pH has been achieved.

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Assess Oxygen

People argue ferociously about oxygen levels.  Some say oxygen levels are “always safe” in ponds with waterfalls and fountains, while others don’t regard fountains or waterfalls as effective aerators.  Either way, oxygen levels are very important.  If the oxygen level is chronically low (for example, 5.0 ppm), the fish will grow much more slowly, they’ll get sick easier, and they may even die.  If the oxygen levels are much too low on the short term (for example 3.0-4.0 ppm), the fish will gasp or pipe at the water’s surface and they will die.  Large fish die first when oxygen levels are too low because large fish demand more oxygen to live.  When the first fish dies, it’s body begins to break down and the decay process increases the oxygen demand of the pond even more, causing a rapid avalanche of fish losses.  Always bear in mind that warmer water (78+oF) carries MUCH LESS oxygen than cold water (<68oF).  Oxygen problems are VERY common in summertime while the water is warm.  To make it worse, submerged plants and algae consume oxygen at night or in the dark (they produce oxygen in the daytime when it is light).  Pond depth influences oxygen levels as much as temperature does.  Oxygen penetration down to five feet of water is difficult.  If your pond is more than four feet deep, you will need to put a pump on the pond bottom in summer to push the deep water to the surface for oxygenation.  Waterfalls and fountains will not aerate “deep” water unless the water is physically drawn from the bottom for these features.  Oxygen levels at five to six feet may sill sag, despite this.  Oxygen levels are testable with commercial kits, or you can have someone test the oxygen levels for you.  Assess a warmer, deeper pond much more scrupulously for oxygen problems.

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Assess Pond Space 

This should probably be moved to Step One, because it’s certainly the leading cause of illness in Koi.  The detriment of overcrowding is a direct function of necessarily-high feeding rates, always-present under filtration, too infrequent water changes, and then the resultant buildup of noxious compounds including nitrogen, fish solid waste, and Carbon Dioxide as a result of overcrowding.  Ponds should NEVER contain more than one inch of fish per ten gallons of water.  In fact, if I were advising someone on how to “have an almost effortless pond experience,” I would recommend ½ inch of fish per ten gallons of water as a MAXIMUM stocking density.  Of course, we know from research done at Auburn University that fish can live in water at a rate of several pounds of fish per single gallon.  But these conditions are highly micromanaged and difficult to sustain, to put it mildly.  In practice, it is VERY common to encounter ponds crowded with two or even three inches of fish per ten gallons of water, and the fish are “okay.”  However, the density and ecological strain of this loading make these ponds into fragile “card houses” you could not leave alone on vacation.  The pH tends to sag, the fish tend to grow more slowly and disease is a much more common occurrence.  Johnson’s Law:  You will not salvage sick fish that are overcrowded.  Invariably, Mother Nature will pick off your favorite fish to achieve her ideal stocking density based on the system the fish are in, and then the remainder will recover as if by magical intervention.  So “spread ‘em out” and accomplish a reduction in crowding before Mother Nature handles this crucial step for you.

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Step TEN

Assess Water Flows

There are actually two elements to this assessment.  The first part is to know that Koi and Goldfish are riverine fish.  This means that they are physically and intellectually engineered for a fiver environment, not a pond environment.  This doesn’t imply that they can’t live in a pond.  It just means that it’s an adjustment.  Koi and Goldfish have a torpedo shape, barbells, and are egg-scatterers.  All of these are adjustments to surviving handily in fast moving water which may be turbid (prohibiting sight feeding) and where nests would not survive the river’s passage.  Your pond should have considerable water movement to approximate the natural requirements of the fish.  The second component is the filtration.  No filtration system works “up to par” unless the filter is presented with the entire pond’s volume every 2 hours.  Faster is even a little better, for in all but the largest ponds, “once an hour” is an excellent ideal.  Turnover rates through the filter close to once an hour will give clearer water, higher oxygen levels and better quality in general.  So assess the water flows of your pond for turnover on par with these concepts and subtract 15% from your “Chances of Success Score” in fish-dense ponds with turnovers slower than once every two hours.  Add 15% to your COSS if the pond turns over every hour.

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Assess Water Temperature 

This is a relatively simple assessment, but it goes beyond just reading a thermometer.  Understanding how temperature affects your “Chances of Success Score” is essential.  First, warmer fish are healthier because their immune system functions optimally in warmer (>74oF) water.  Second, medicines and other attempts at recovering fish tend to FAIL in cold (<65oF) water.  So this assessment tells you two things:  Part of the cause of the illness (too cold water) and one of the obstacles in the recovery of the fish (also cold water).  Disease is much less common in warm water.  Fish recoveries are faster in warmer water because the healing process is accelerated.  These statements could cause a person to interpret that slowly moving a very-sick fish from cold water to warmer water would improve its chances of survival and that would be exactly true.  Slowly, and gently warming the fish while increasing oxygen levels to compensate for the warmer water is the key.  But in some cases, warming the fish is impossible because there are too many specimens to warm in limited space.  In this unfortunate scenario, “assessment” of the water temperature doesn’t lead to the “assurance” of proper temperature.  So, you would simply assess a cold pond’s temperature and subtract 30% from your “Chances of Success Score” if the water temperature is less than 65 degrees F.  Conversely, you could go ahead and add 30% back to your COSS with any fish you can slowly and gently warm to at least 74 degrees F.

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Assess Pond Obstacles 

Don’t forget this step, because MANY ponds contain engineered obstacles, whether intentional or not.  Rocks perched on the pond’s edge can cut the faces of Koi which surface to eat near the edge.  Some ponds are engineered to have rocks on their ledges, and when the Koi access those ledges for foodstuffs or simply to explore, damage can be done to their bellies or other exposed skin of the face or gill-cover.  Substantial shar-edged boulders in the pond can also lacerate a Koi that swims into the rock when dashing from a fright, or at night while sleeping.  Certain skimmer parts and filtration accoutrements in the pond bottom also cut any fish which swims into them.  If fish are sick or showing up with sores or wounds, assess the pond for injurious obstacles into which they may be swimming.  A skilled pond installer can install rocks, boulders, and other decorative and natural looking objects into a pond design with sensitivity to where the fish will be fed, and how they will safely move about.  Some sharp, already-deployed obstacles can be wrapped in liner underwater to make them harmless to the fish.

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Assess Pond Cleanliness

No pond, of any type, will preserve fish health unless it is kept clean.  There are numerous factors which influence this but how many fish you have and how much food you feed them are the two most important.  It is the intention of all filters, regardless of type, to collect unsightly ‘solid’ waste.  Eventually, all filtration types must dispel this in one way or another.  Some filtration, such as a gravel bottom pond, relies on the breakdown of these solid wastes by beneficial bacteria and the subsequent removal of these solubilized waste products via important water changes.  Annual cleaning of the gravel bed can also be a priority.  Bead filters must be backwashed to dispel their solid burden.  Matt filters have to be dragged away from the pond for manual rinsing.  The pond itself should have routine attention to remove sticks, leaves and seeds of trees and plants near the pond.  If the pond contains gravel on the bottom, it should receive its annual cleaning, and additional beneficial bacterial should be deployed to solubilize the solid wastes captured by the gravel bed.  This is oh-so-true for gravel barrel filters also.  Regardless of the filtration type in use on a pond, in systems containing important collections of fish, regular water changes contribute a great deal to water cleanliness and fish health.  Water changes potentiate the natural activities of the pond ecosystem and let the beneficial bacteria in the pond do their work more efficiently.  In your assessment of the pond, if the water looks or smells undrinkably poor, or you would not permit your child to wade around in the pond, it is then also NOT sufficient for Koi, and you should attack the problem with a pond cleaning and a water change of the largest safe volume before hoping for success attacking a fish illness.  If, on the other hand, the pond is effervescent and sweet smelling, the water is clear and moving with a bubbly exuberance, rest assured that the fish are primed to recover and will respond to the other nineteen steps to fish health.

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Attack Bacterial Pathogens 

Attacking bacterial pathogens is ONLY effective AFTER you have improved the overall conditions of the fish host.  If the fish remain crowded, cold, underfed, overfed, or parasitized, GIVE UP on saving the fish from bacterial infection.  If you have improved the temperature, reduced crowding, and in every other way attended the twenty steps to fish health, this step will work well.  To combat bacterial infections you should get an antibiotic INTO the fish.  It is usually insufficient to put antibiotics ON a fish.  I recommend dressing the fishes’ wounds if possible with an antibiotic ointment called Debride.  Other ointments, such as Panalog, are equally effective.  Simultaneously, feeding medicated food, such as MediKoi, is effective.  And finally, dipping or spraying the fish in Tricide Neo cinches success unless the fish is too far gone.  If you are an advanced hobbyist you might also consider injection of antibiotics.  This documented in another area, and in the book “Koi Health & Disease” by Dr. Erik Johnson (see for details).

            Generally, a combination of “good” water, minimal crowding, gentle heat in the seventies with proper aeration, medicated food like MediKoi, plus Tricide Neo dips sparingly used, are all I have required to recover fish with bacterial infections.

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Attack Fungal Co-Invaders 

Fungus infections are common in Koi that are too cold, or are severely stressed.  You can look at a Koi with fungus and safely assess that it’s got a SEVERELY compromised immune system.  It’s NORMAL for fungus to grow in existing or even healing bacterial sores.  If the fish is schooling with the rest of the fish and still taking food, NO treatment is usually indicated for mere patches of fungus.  If the fish is showing signs of “losing” the battle to the fungus, it should be brought gently to 76-78 degrees F, at the rate of one degree per hour until the goal temperature is accomplished.  Aeration should be supplemented to these fish.  Gentle handling is critical as the fish with fungus is by definition “In a Weakened Condition” or it would not be growing fungus organisms in its skin defects.

            Warmed, and fed medicated food, a fish with some fungus patches should do very well.  If you desire to kill off some of the fungus or reduce the fungal colonies, you can swab the lesions with 3% Hydrogen Peroxide, Potassium Permanganate or even Methylene Blue.  Return the fish to the water quickly and handle it as little as possible.  Wear eye protection if you are using something caustic to your eyeballs, as Murphy’s Law holds that the fish WILL thrash anything you put on its body into your eyes.

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Attack Parasitic Pathogens 

Whole books could be written on parasites in Koi but for simplicity we could suggest some shotgun remedies that we have found to be effective.  I will reference various medications in this and future sections to give you direction.  It is your responsibility to lean how to use these medicines SPECIFICALLY and I recommend that you read all you can by qualified, experienced people.  I wrote a whole book on this stuff, called “Koi Health & Disease” by Dr. Erik Johnson (that’s me).  In most ponds, a person could clear most significant parasitism with a combination chosen from below:

SCENARIO A:  Planted pond, Aquascape Filtration, Water under 80 DF:  Use Interpet, Paracide Green, ProForm C or other 37% Formalin/Malachite Green solution according to label instructions or to accomplish 25 ppm.  With Formalin/Malachite Green 37% solution, 25 ppm is had by using 1 cc per ten US gallons every day for five days.  With Aquascape filtration, you don’t have to do water changes if the pond is under 80 DF.  These ponds have high aeration and an organic load that handily breaks down Formalin before it hurts the fish.  Watch for signs of low oxygen if water is warm.  Do not use in winter water below 45 degrees F.  Safe for plants, Goldfish and Koi.  Verify parasite clearance with microscopy.

SCENARIO B:  Planted pond, no gravel or significant organic debris in substrate, water under 80 DF: Shotgun treatment with Praziquantel and Potassium Permanganate.  Dose daily with one level teaspoon of Potassium Permanganate per six hundred US gallons for five days.  After the fifth treatment, do a forty percent water change, decolorize the rest of the PP with 3% Hydrogen Peroxide and then deploy Praziquantel.  Safe for plants, Koi and Goldfish.  Verify parasite clearance with microscopy.

SCENARIO C:  Planted pond, no gravel or significant organic debris in substrate, water under 80 DF: Shotgun treatment with SupaVerm and Potassium Permanganate.  Dose daily with one level teaspoon of Potassium Permanganate per six hundred US gallons for five days.  After the fifth treatment, do a forty percent water change, decolorize the rest of the PP with 3% Hydrogen Peroxide and then deploy SupaVerm according to instructions.  Safe for Koi but will kill all Goldfish, Orfe, Rudd, Tench, etc.  Verify parasite clearance with microscopy.

SCENARIO D:  UN-planted pond, Aquascape Filtration, water under 80 DF: Deploy salt at 0.6% and SupaVerm full dose.  Safe for Koi but will kill all Goldfish.  Verify parasite clearance with microscopy.

SCENARIO E:  UN-planted pond, no gravel or significant organic debris in substrate, water under 80 DF: Deploy salt at 0.6% and deploy Praziquantel on day one and again on day four.  Safe for Goldfish and Koi.  Verify parasite clearance with microscopy.

SCENARIO F:  UN-planted pond or planted pond in very COLD weather: Dose daily with one level teaspoon of Potassium Permanganate per six hundred US gallons for five days.  After the fifth treatment, do a forty percent water change, decolorize the rest of the PP with 3% Hydrogen Peroxide and then deploy Praziquantel.  Safe for cold water, plants, Koi and Goldfish.  Verify parasite clearance with microscopy.

SCENARIO G:  Planted ponds in very HOT weather: You need to cool the pond down with daily water changes.  These water changes are required when using Formalin in warm water anyway.  So do a fairly major water change to begin with in order to cool the pond, and provide what shade you can to the pond.  Use Interpet, Paracide Green, ProForm C or other 37% Formalin/Malachite Green solution according to label instructions or to accomplish 25 ppm.  NOTE: With Formalin/Malachite Green 37% solution, 25 ppm is had by using 1 cc per ten US gallons every day for five days.  I highly recommend that in warm water (over eighty degrees F) that you would only leave the Formalin/Malachite Green in the pond for 120 minutes THEN do a major 50% water change to cool down the pond and remove the Formalin.  Verify parasite clearance with microscopy.

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Assess Viral Pathogens 

For the purposes of this article, I will only address Koi Herpes Virus.  No other virus is going to kill any appreciable number of fish.  Even with viruses like Spring Viremia of Carp, we won’t see losses higher than ten percent.  But with KHV we will see monstrous losses.  Here’s the breakdown that should make you suspicious:

  1. Water quality checks out well (test it or get it tested) but the fish skin is peeling.
  2. Gills are breaking down with rotten-looking patches.
  3. Fish develop black rings on their skin.
  4. The disease started when the water hit 67 degrees F.
  5. The deaths really got rolling at 74 degrees F.
  6. New fish without quarantine are in the history, almost always from Taiwan, Hong Kong, or Thailand.

If you suspect Koi Herpes Virus, fire off a fish to the University of Georgia by way of: – That page has the entire why, how, who, what, where and when of KHV testing, including shipping instructions and cost breakdown.

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Assess Broad Spectrum or Shotgun Concepts and Remedies

To fight parasites and bacterial infections simultaneously:

Shotgun Therapy Number One (Koi Only) Shotgun Therapy Number One (Koi Only)

  1. Water testing.
  2. Salting to 0.6%.
  3. SupaVerm 1ml/100gal.
  4. Diflubenzuron (Anchors Away or similar).
  5. Medicated food.

Concepts behind this method:

  • Salt controls the majority of ciliated protozoan parasites.
  • Medicated food, in lieu of injections, controls the development of bacterial infections which might be brought on by transportation stress.
  • SupaVerm is completely safe to use with salt and control Flukes, which are extremely common, very effectively.  However, SupaVerm kills goldfish!
  • Diflubenzuron eliminates all crustacean parasites including Argulus and Lernea.
  • Water testing is important because in quarantine, water quality sometimes sags.  This compounds the fishes’ stress and is worse than no quarantine at all!  Also, fish will NOT get over their various ailments in poor water quality!

Problems with this Shotgun regimen:

  • Regimen number one can’t be used on Goldfish because of the incorporation of SupaVerm as a Fluke remedy.  Perhaps substituting Prazi would resolve this issue.  It is more expensive.
  • Costia can survive this regimen.
  • If fish won’t eat, then the medicated food will not achieve its objective.

Shotgun Regimen Number Two Shotgun Therapy Number One (Koi Only)

  1. Water testing.
  2. Salting to 0.6%.
  3. Drop Salt to below 0.3% before Formalin
  4. Formalin, using the 120 minute method.
  5. Achieve: 25 ppm Formalin for Goldfish.
  6. Achieve: 50 ppm Formalin for Koi.
  7. Medicated food.

Concepts behind this method:

  • “The Costia workaround,” because Formalin spares no parasites.
  • 50 ppm is obtained by applying 2 cc of Formalin 37% per ten gallons of water.
  • This regimen is perfectly okay for Goldfish if you go light (25 ppm) on the Formalin.
  • 25 ppm is obtained by applying one cc of Formalin 37% per ten gallons of water.
  • Increase aeration for this regimen while Formalin is being deployed.
  • After 120 minutes, the Formalin is to be mostly removed by a 50-70% water change.

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Assure “Quarantine” Capability 

This is as much preventative as anything else, but it’s an IMPERATIVE step.  If you neglect this step, you’re signing yourself, or your customer up for further misery.

Quarantine is simply the detention of new fish in isolation facilities in order to stop the spread of any disease that they might be carrying through the main, resident population of fish.  Great fat books have been written on proper quarantine.  In a simplified form, quarantine facilities should have impeccable water quality, and should be maintained in the seventies Fahrenheit.  Quarantine should be well aerated, and completely covered with a light-permitting lid or net.  Do not quarantine fish in the dark, please.

Treat the Koi in quarantine with medicated food, salt at 0.3% and either SupaVerm or Prazi.  If you have Goldfish to quarantine, do NOT use SupaVerm.  You may also safely use Dimilin in quarantine to prevent macroscopic crustacean parasites like Anchor Worm or Fish Lice.

Quarantine should be at least 14 days in length, the fish should be observed often for signs of disease.  The larger the quarantine you use, the better you will like it, and the healthier the fish will ultimately be.  A quarantine in which the fish are crowded to more than two inches per ten gallons, or in which water quality deteriorates (use your tests!) or in which no treatment is deployed WILL cause, not prevent disease.  More is written on proper quarantine at, or search

Quarantine is the most important means of limiting the spread of Koi Herpes Virus and other diseases for which there is no “cure” even though such diseases may be controllable.

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Assure Oneself of Advanced Help 

Knowing what to do in the event of a crisis is not just lucky.  It’s a deliberate effort to have success when an unexpected catastrophe strikes.  Here are some resources:

  • – Find a veterinarian near you that treats fish.
  • – Simple and to the point, brief articles on the medicines mentioned above.  A symptoms chart in which you simply click the fish where it’s “sick” and receive clear instructions.
  • – You can come here to chat in real time or get a question answered.
  • – Message board is populated with experienced hobbyists who may be able to help you through a crisis.
  • – Sending fish samples to the University of Georgia couldn’t be easier.  The how, when, where and why is answered on this website.

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